Glucose and dextrose are both simple sugars or monosaccharides. The words “dextrose” and “glucose” are often used interchangeably, because the first is the mirror arrangement of the second like how your hands mirror each other. Glucose is present in nature in two isomers named L-glucose and D-glucose. Dextrose is D-glucose and may be referred to as dextrose or glucose because dextrose is actually a form of glucose.
Dextrose or D-glucose is the form of glucose found naturally in fruit and honey such as derived from plants. In USA, according to the Sugar Association, dextrose in foods is derived principally from cornstarch. In Europe, dextrose as crystalline is derived by sugar beet. In other regions, we can find “rice sugar,” “wheat sugar” or “cane sugar,” depending on the plant source.
Carbohydrate consumed in food yields 3.87 calories of energy per gram for simple sugars, and 3.57 to 4.12 calories per gram for complex carbohydrate in most other foods. Relatively high levels of carbohydrate are associated with processed foods or refined foods made from plants, including sweets, cookies and candy, table sugar, honey, soft drinks, breads and crackers, jams and fruit products, pastas and breakfast cereals. Lower amounts of carbohydrate are usually associated with unrefined foods, including beans, tubers, rice, and unrefined fruit. Animal-based foods generally have the lowest carbohydrate levels, although milk does contain a high proportion of lactose.
An intravenous sugar solution (usually 5% sugar in pure water) is a solution with a sugar (usually glucose, also known as dextrose, with water as the solvent) used for intravenous therapy, where it may function both as a means of maintaining tissue hydration and a means of parenteral nutrition. Most IV sugar solutions are crystalloid solutions. In the United States a glucose solution is a prescription drug.
Honey is the mixture of sugars that bees produce; on average, honey is nearly 20% water, and contains about 40% fructose, 30% glucose and 1% sucrose. The remainder is a mixture of other sugars and minute traces of naturally present acids, vitamins, minerals and enzymes.Pure honey has a typical ranking of 58 on the scale. But some varieties are even lower. The glycemic index of honey depends on how much fructose is in that particular batch. Honeys that contain 35 to 45 percent fructose, for example, score around 35 to 48 on the glycemic index. White table sugar, also known as sucrose, is higher, with a glycemic index between 58 and 65.
Maltodextrin consists of D-glucose units connected in chains of variable length. It has a high glycemic index (85-105) used as a common food additive. Maltodextrin is easily digestible, being absorbed as rapidly as glucose. In powder form solved in a half glass of water – maltodextrin is an useful solution for athletes to take large amounts of sugar, eating a quickly digestible carbohydrate that supplies the body with enough energy to engage in protein synthesis.
About any kind of sugar it is important to have care regarding quantities, because an excessive consumption may create a load on the blood sugar regulatory mechanism as because it is devoid of all nutrient.